Evaluation of the active constituents, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of Iraqi Euonymus japonicus leaves using Ethyl Acetate Extract
Keywords:Polyphenolic Characterization, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Iraqi Euonymus japonicus L. Ethyl Acetate Extract
Background: Euonymus japonicus is one species of celastraceous family used as decorative plant and in traditional Chinese medicine. The lack of information about the main active constituents and the possible biological activities of Iraqi Euonymus japonicus leaves is considered a motivation to start this in vitro study
Aim of the study: to identify the phytochemical components and to evaluate antioxidant and antimicrobial activities
Material and Methods: The chemical composition of Iraqi Euonymus japonicus leaves was identified and analyzed using the Reversed-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography approach and the antioxidant properties were measured by free radical - scavenging assay DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate). Furthermore, the antibacterial properties were evaluated via the agar well diffusion method against two pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus- aureus, E. coli, and Candida albicans.
Results: The results showed that the main active constituents of Euonymus japonicus leaves in ethyl acetate fraction were Naringenin, vitexin, Kaempferol, Apigenin, and quercetin respectively.in addition, antioxidant activity ethyl-acetate fraction had the greatest antioxidant activity with the IC50 value of 54.89 μg /mL while the highest antimicrobial efficacy of the ethyl acetate extract (3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 µg/ml) was demonstrated by the inhibitory zones (12-19 mm for Staphylococcus- aureus,16-20 mm for E. coli,16-21 mm for candida albicans) compared with positive control Augmentin (19 mm) and ketoconazole (16mm) respectively
Conclusion: The first identification of antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of E. japonic in vitro, show this plant has the highest activity compared to standard, this activity is related to the polyphenolic compound.
James T. Japanese spindle tree Euonymus japonicus. [cited 2022 May 13]; Available from: https://www.chewvalleytrees.co.uk/products/detail/euonymus-japonica
Ruiz-Riaguas A, Fernández-de Córdova ML, Llorent-Martínez EJ. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of Euonymus japonicus Thunb. Nat Prod Res. 2022;36(13):3445–9.
Bensid A, El Abed N, Houicher A, Regenstein JM, Özogul F. Antioxidant and antimicrobial preservatives: Properties, mechanism of action and applications in food–a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2022;62(11):2985–3001.
Tian J, Walayat N, Ding Y, Liu J. The role of trifunctional cryoprotectants in the frozen storage of aquatic foods: Recent developments and future recommendations. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 2022;21(1):321–39.
Crepaldi AL, da Rocha Bispo AS, Cruz DCB, Tavechio WLG, Araújo FM, Rocha TVS, et al. Phytochemical screening, toxicity and antimicrobial activity of different Mimosa tenuiflora extracts on Aeromonas strains. Semin Ciências Agrárias. 2022;43(2):641–56.
Lama-Muñoz A, del Mar Contreras M, Espínola F, Moya M, Romero I, Castro E. Content of phenolic compounds and mannitol in olive leaves extracts from six Spanish cultivars: Extraction with the Soxhlet method and pressurized liquids. Food Chem. 2020;320:126626.
Kim S-H, Yoon KD. HPLC Method Validation for Quantitative Analysis of Scopoletin from Hot-Water Extract Powder of Artemisia annua Linné. Korean J Pharmacogn. 2020;51(1):78–85.
Nandhini S, Ilango K. Simultaneous Quantification of Lupeol, Stigmasterol and β-Sitosterol in Extracts of Adhatoda vasica Nees Leaves and its Marketed Formulations by a Validated RP-HPLC Method. Pharmacogn J. 2020;12(4).
Blois MS. Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature. 1958;181(4617):1199–200.
Prior RL, Wu X, Schaich K. Standardized methods for the determination of antioxidant capacity and phenolics in foods and dietary supplements. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53(10):4290–302.
Hazrati S, Nicola S, Khurizadeh S, Alirezalu A, Mohammadi H. Physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition of Chrozophora tinctoria seeds as a new oil source. Grasas y Aceites. 2019;70(4):e328–e328.
Oke F, Aslim B, Ozturk S, Altundag S. Essential oil composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Satureja cuneifolia Ten. Food Chem. 2009;112(4):874–9.
Ojha D, Maity C, Mohapatra P Das, Samanta A. In vitro antimicrobial potentialities of different solvent extracts of ethnomedicinal plants against clinically isolated... J Phytol. 2010;2(4):57–64.
Muttalib LY, Naqishbandi AM. Antibacterial and phytochemical study of Iraqi Salvia officinalis leave extracts. Iraqi J Pharm Sci (P-ISSN 1683-3597, E-ISSN 2521-3512). 2012;21(1):93–7.
Huber U, Majors RE. Principles in preparative HPLC. Agil Technol Inc, Ger. 2007;2:60–71.
Gong Z, Chen S, Gao J, Li M, Wang X, Lin J, et al. Isolation and purification of seven catechin compounds from fresh tea leaves by semi-preparative liquid chromatography. Se pu= Chinese J Chromatogr. 2017;35(11):1192–7.
Suh H-J, Kim S-R, Lee K-S, Park S, Kang SC. Antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts from Allomyrina dichotoma (Arthropoda: Insecta) larvae. J Photochem Photobiol B Biol. 2010;99(2):67–73.
Syaputri I, Girsang E, Chiuman L. Test Of Antioxidant And Antibacterial Activity Of Ethanol Extract Of Andaliman Fruit (Zanthoxylum Acanthopodium Dc.) With Dpph (1.1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazil) Trapping Method And Minimum Inhibitory Concentration. Int J Heal Pharm. 2022;2(2):215–24.
Emran T Bin, Rahman MA, Uddin MMN, Dash R, Hossen MF, Mohiuddin M, et al. Molecular docking and inhibition studies on the interactions of Bacopa monnieri’s potent phytochemicals against pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus. DARU J Pharm Sci. 2015;23(1):1–8.
Hultmark, Dan. "Quantification of antimicrobial activity, using the inhibition-zone assay." (1998): 103-107.
Hussein AA, Saour KY. Extraction, Identification and Isolation of B-sitosterol from Iraqi Wild Awsaj plant (Lycium barbarum) Using UAE (Probe and Bath) and two isolation technique (HPTLC and PHPLC): B-sitosterol in Iraqi Awsaj plant. Iraqi J Pharm Sci (P-ISSN 1683-3597, E-ISSN 2521-3512). 2017;75–84.
Babaei F, Moafizad A, Darvishvand Z, Mirzababaei M, Hosseinzadeh H, Nassiri‐Asl M. Review of the effects of vitexin in oxidative stress‐related diseases. Food Sci Nutr. 2020;8(6):2569–80.
Zou H, Ye H, Kamaraj R, Zhang T, Zhang J, Pavek P. A review on pharmacological activities and synergistic effect of quercetin with small molecule agents. Phytomedicine. 2021;92:153736.
Ghanbari-Movahed M, Jackson G, Farzaei MH, Bishayee A. A systematic review of the preventive and therapeutic effects of naringin against human malignancies. Front Pharmacol. 2021;12:639840.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 rasha abdulrida
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
For all articles published in Journal of the Faculty of Medicine Baghdad, copyright is retained by the authors. Articles are licensed under an open access Creative Commons CC BY NC 4.0 license, meaning that anyone may download and read the paper for free. In addition, the article may be reused and quoted provided that the original published version is cited. These conditions allow for maximum use and exposure of the work, while ensuring that the authors receive proper rights.