- Authorship credit should be based only on substantial contributions to each of the three components mentioned below:
- Concept and design of study or acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data;
- Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and
- Final approval of the version to be published.
- Participation solely in the acquisition of funding or the collection of data does not justify authorship.
- General supervision of the research group is not sufficient for authorship.
- Each contributor should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content of the manuscript.
- The order of naming the contributors should be based on the relative contribution of the contributor towards the study and writing the manuscript.
- Once submitted the order cannot be changed without written consent of all the contributors.
- The journal prescribes a maximum number of authors for manuscripts depending upon the type of manuscript, its scope, and the number of institutions involved. The authors should justify if the number of authors exceeds these limits.
- The list of authors should be prepared with careful attention.
- Any addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the Editor.
- To request such a change, the Editor must receive (a) the reason for the change in the author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal, or rearrangement. In the case of the addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
- Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.
- Contributors should describe contributions made by each of them towards the manuscript.
- Description should be divided into the following categories, as applicable:
Definition of intellectual content
- One or more authors should take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole from inception to published article and should be designated as 'guarantors'.
Conflicts of Interest/ Competing Interests
- All authors must disclose any conflicts of interest they may have with the publication of the manuscript or an institution or product that is mentioned in the manuscript and/or is important to the outcome of the study presented.
- Authors should also disclose conflicts of interest with products that compete with those mentioned in their manuscript.
Duties of Authors:
- Reporting standards:
Authors of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance.
Underlying data should be represented accurately in the paper.
A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work.
Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable.
- Originality and Plagiarism:
The authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others that this has been appropriately cited or quoted.
Plagiarism takes many forms, from ‘passing off’ another’s paper as the author’s paper, to copying or paraphrasing substantial parts of another’s paper (without attribution), to claiming results from research conducted by others. Plagiarism in all its forms constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable.
- Multiple, Redundant, or Concurrent Publication:
An author should not in general publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication.
Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable.
- Acknowledgement of Sources:
Proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given.
Authors should cite publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work.
Information obtained privately, as in conversation, correspondence, or discussion with third parties, must not be used or reported without explicit, written permission from the source.
Information obtained in the course of confidential services, such as refereeing manuscripts or grant applications, must not be used without the explicit written permission of the author of the work involved in these services.
- Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest:
All authors should disclose in their manuscript any financial or other substantive conflicts of interest that might be construed to influence the results or interpretation of their manuscript.
All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed.
- Fundamental errors in published works:
When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper.
Declaration of interest
- All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work, such as employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding.
- Authors must disclose such interests in (a) a summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double anonymized) or the manuscript file (if single anonymized).
- If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. - This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted; (b) detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records.
- Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors.
- Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.
- Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship.
- All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section.
- Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.
- Writing assistance
- Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section.
- Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company, and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance.
- It is not necessary to disclose the use of language polishing services.
- Any acknowledgments should appear first at the end of your article prior to your Declaration of Conflicting Interests (if applicable), any notes, and your References.
- All authors need to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading.
- Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Redundant or duplicate publication
- We ask you to confirm that your paper is original, has not been published in its current form or a substantially similar form (in print or electronically, including on a website), has not been accepted for publication elsewhere, and that it is not under consideration by another publication.
- The ICMJE has provided details of what is and what is not a duplicate or redundant publication. If you are in doubt, we ask you to proceed with your submission but to include a copy of the relevant previously published work or work under consideration by other journals.
- Authors must draw attention to any published work that concerns the same patients or subjects as the present paper in a cover letter with their article.
Permission to reproduce previously published material
- the journal requires you to send us copies of permission to reproduce material (such as illustrations) from the copyright holder.
- Articles cannot be published without these permissions.
For patient consent forms see Publication ethics
For ethics committee approval see Publication ethics