Journal of the Faculty of Medicine Baghdad https://iqjmc.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/19JFacMedBaghdad36 <h3>Journal of the Faculty of Medicine – University of Baghdad</h3> <h3>A peer-reviewed journal published Quarterly by the college of medicine –Baghdad University</h3> <h3>ISSN:&nbsp; &nbsp;0041-9419</h3> <h3>E-ISSN: 2410-8057</h3> <h3>The Journal interested in the publication of clinical and basic medical research.</h3> <h3>The first issue of this Journal was published under the name of (Journal of the Royal Iraqi Medical College) in April /1936, approved by the council of the College as a general journal dealing with the news of the college and few scientific articles to encourage the teaching staff for research publication. The journal was published randomly and ceased during World War II due to financial difficulties.</h3> <h3>In 1946 Prof. Dr. Hashim Al Witri, the college dean, assigned republication of the journal and urged the teaching staff to participate and publish their research in the journal. Despite his effort, the journal remained irregular in publication. In 1959&nbsp; Prof. Dr. Faisal Al-Sabih became the Editor in Chief of the journal when he returned from the United Kingdom and appointed on the teaching staff, restructured the journal and changed its name to (The Journal of the Faculty of Medicine) and used a new scientific system for publication of articles.</h3> <h3>The first issue of the new series started in June 1959. The journal continued to be published on a regular basis since then without interruption in (four issues during the year). The journal became registered the international number (ISSN) in 2000 and entered in many important international indexes.</h3> <h3>After 2003 the journal continued despite the difficulties involved in every aspect of the country and by the beginning of 2004, the journal progressed through a series of changes to reach a level that can be recognized internationally.</h3> <h3>After 2010 the journal became published electronically of the same edited issues.</h3> en-US <p>&nbsp;For all articles published in Journal of the Faculty of Medicine Baghdad, copyright is retained by the authors. Articles are licensed under an open access<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/">&nbsp;Creative Commons CC BY NC 4.0 license</a>,&nbsp;meaning that anyone may download and read the paper for free. In addition, the article may be reused and quoted provided that the original published version is cited. These conditions allow for maximum use and exposure of the work, while ensuring that the authors receive proper rights.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> muhammedm.alani@comed.uobaghdad.edu.iq (Prof. Mohammed M. Al-Anni) iqjmc@comed.uobaghdad.edu.iq (Assistant Lecturer Sara Mohammed Abdullah) Fri, 13 Jan 2023 16:30:05 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.13 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 the Immunohistochemical Study of Stathmin-1 as A Prognostic factor In Non-small cell lung carcinoma https://iqjmc.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/19JFacMedBaghdad36/article/view/1948 <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>Stathmin1 (also known as metablastin) is a major microtubule-depolymerizing protein that involved in cell cycle progression and cell motility.</p> <p> Stathmin1 has been found to be up-regulated in some cancers and correlated with cell differentiation and proliferation. </p> <p>Stathmin1 is a major cytosolic phosphoprotein that regulates microtubule dynamics and is associated with malignant phenotypes in various cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Objective</strong></p> <p> To evaluate the role of Immunohistochemical expression of stathmin1 in non-small lung carcinoma and its correlation to different prognostic factors or parameters.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Materials and methods</strong></p> <p>This retrospective study carried on formalin fixed paraffin embedded surgical specimens of lung tumors Applying the Immunohistochemical techniques by using the primary antibodies to stathmin1, statistical analysis done and assessment of correlation with different clinical and pathological parameters measured.</p> <p> </p> <p> <strong>Results </strong></p> <p>Fifty cases of Non-small lung carcinomas that 42% adenocarcinoma,44% squamous cell carcinoma 10% adenosequamous and 4% non-small lung carcinoma 84 % were Stathmin-1 positive.</p> <p> No significant correlation between Stathmin-1 expression with age and gender of patients but Stathmin-1 expression were correlated with parameters including type and grade of tumor.</p> <p>High expression was noted in poorly differentiated tumors.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong></p> <p>Measurement of stathmin1 level may be a beneficial prognostic biomarker for non-small lung tumors especially those of poorly differentiated tumors</p> <p>Stathmin1 expression in non-small cell lung carcinoma significantly correlated with poor tumor differentiation and could be considered as independent prognostic factor.</p> Nadhema Bahaa Hussein Wetwet, Hadeel Abdulelah Karbel KERBEL, Ali Salih Baay Baay, Muhammed Whaeeb Salman Al-Obaidy Copyright (c) 2022 PROFESSOR : MUHAMMED WAHEEB SALMAN AL,OBAIDY, Dr. Nadhema Bahaa Hussein Wetwet, Dr. Hadeel Abdulelah Karbel KERBEL, Dr.Ali Salih Baay Baay http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://iqjmc.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/19JFacMedBaghdad36/article/view/1948 Fri, 13 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Dapagliflozin on hemoglobin level in heart failure patients with chronic kidney disease and/or diabetes https://iqjmc.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/19JFacMedBaghdad36/article/view/1973 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome caused by any functional or structural cardiac disease that reduces the ventricle's ability to fill or pump blood. Anemia is frequent in patient with heart failure and is associated with deterioration through the activation of neuro-hormonal pathways. Dapagliflozin is a selective and reversible inhibitor of Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2). Dapagliflozin increases hemoglobin level through different mechanisms such increasing plasma concentration by diuresis or increasing Erythropoietin synthesis.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate the effect of additional dapagliflozin into conventional therapy on hemoglobin in heart failure patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) with or without diabetes mellitus DM.</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods</strong>: This was prospective clinical study conducted at medical wards at Nasiriya Heart Center during the period from the 1st November / 2021 to the end of July / 2022. The research was conduct on 120 participants with heart failure and renal impairment. The patients were divided into two groups. The first group included 60 patients who were administered dapagliflozin in addition to conventional medication and the other group consisted of 60 patients who received only conventional therapy. Both groups were matched regarding socio-demographic characteristics. Hemoglobin concentration, was recorded on day 1 as a baseline visit then followed up after four months.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Before treatment there were no significant differences in sociodemographic and clinical parameters between the two groups. In the dapagliflozin group, hemoglobin level was significantly higher than pre-therapeutic level (12.53 g/L vs 11.85 g/L, P= 0.016).patients in the control group had significantly lower mean level of hemoglobin after treatment compared to baseline level (11.88 g/L vs 12.56 g/L, P= 0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The study shows that dapagliflozin increases the concentration of hemoglobin and correct anemia in patients with heart failure with CKD compared to the control group.</p> Ahmed A. Obeed, Tahseen A. AL-Kinani, Huda Ibrahim AL- Qadhi Copyright (c) 2022 احمد السهلاني http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://iqjmc.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/19JFacMedBaghdad36/article/view/1973 Fri, 13 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Measuring of Specific Bone Alkaline phosphatase ( BAP ) Bone Remodeling biomarker for Post-COVID Iraqi Patient https://iqjmc.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/19JFacMedBaghdad36/article/view/1978 <p><strong>Background:</strong> There are several diseases in the body following recovery from COVID-19 infection because this virus operates on human genes in various types of peripheral tissue in the human body. It penetrates host cells via Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 receptors and may have effects on bone remodeling, leading to osteopenia or osteoporosis, which are characterized by low bone mineral density, resulting in diminished bone strength. Bone Alkaline Phpsphatase is an enzyme released into the bloodstream as a soluble homodimer after being cleaved by a phospholipase and can be utilized as a biomarker of bone development.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This research was designed to investigate the alteration of bone homeostasis balance in Iraqi post-COVID-19 infection patients.</p> <p><strong>Cases and Methods:</strong> This is a case control study. The study has received approval from the ethical committee at the Faculty of Medicine, Baghdad University, established on November 20, 2021–March 2, 2022. A hundred and thirty individuals were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into two groups; the first group (80) post-COVID-19 infection patients and the second group (50) non-COVID-19 individuals. Also, measuring markers like serum Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 and Bone Alkaline Phosphatase by using the ELISA technique. The bone mineral density was measured by a DEXA scan.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>This study found that there is an effect of coronavirus infection on the bone strength measured by the mean ± SD Bone Alkaline Phosphatase level, which was found to be highly significant in the serum of post-COVID-19 patients when compared with non-COVID-19 individuals (P-value = 0.001), but the mean ± SD of Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 level was statistically non-significant between the two groups (P-value = 0.13). who had recovered from a coronavirus infection for 3 months or more. Also, the bone mineral density of Post COVID-19 patients that was measured by DEXA scan had a highly significant T-score% when compared between the two groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong>This research found that COVID-19 has an impact on the bone remodeling process, leading to osteopenia or osteoporosis, which may be identified by checking the blood levels of the bone biomarker BAP and the bone mineral density (by DEXA scan) at least three months following coronavirus recovery. This investigation also discovered that some of the individuals had osteopenia rather than osteoporosis.</p> Islam S. Alazawi, Nawar S. Mohammed , Nizar A. Jassim Copyright (c) 2022 Islam Alazawi http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://iqjmc.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/19JFacMedBaghdad36/article/view/1978 Fri, 13 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Kidney functions and electrolyte disturbance among Iraqi patients with bladder cancer https://iqjmc.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/19JFacMedBaghdad36/article/view/1985 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Bladder cancer is among the most prevalent cancers worldwide, with 549,393 new cases reported in 2018. <em>Approximately 3% of all new cancer diagnoses and 2.1% of all cancer deaths are due to urinary bladder cancer.</em></p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>This study aims to <em>explore the efficiency of renal system functions as indicated by renal function tests and electrolyte levels among bladder cancer patients.</em></p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong><em>All patients in this case-control study were recruited from Ghazi Al-Hariri Hospital for surgical specialties in Baghdad during the period from December 2021 to June 2022. A total of 100 individuals were enrolled in this study and divided into two groups. The first group included 50 patients with an age range of (16-79) years. All patients were first diagnosed and investigated with a bladder mass by transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) and sent to the histopathological examination for biopsy of bladder lesion. The second group included 50 healthy individuals.</em></p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results of the present study showed that all renal function tests and serum electrolyte levels were in the upper limit or within the normal range, although some of these levels were significantly different between patients and controls.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>All renal function tests were within the upper limits of the normal range as most of the bladder tumors were<em> low-grade small-sized masses.</em></p> Noor Ibraheem Ahmed Ibraheem, Rawaa H. Ali, Mohammed B. Ismail Copyright (c) 2022 noor ibraheem ahmed ibraheem http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://iqjmc.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/19JFacMedBaghdad36/article/view/1985 Fri, 13 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of Metformin Dose and Treatment Adherence on Glycemic Control, Adiposity, and Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Iraqi Patients with T2DM https://iqjmc.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/19JFacMedBaghdad36/article/view/1939 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Numerous factors, including metformin doses and treatment adherence, may contribute to significant variations in glycemic control and adiposity markers of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients.</p> <p><strong>Objectives :</strong> This study aims to determine the influence of metformin dose and treatment adherence on glycemic control and adiposity markers in Iraqi patients with T2DM.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Between October 2021 and March 2022, a case-series study at the Diabetes and Endocrinology Center – Baghdad included 153 T2DM patients with a disease duration of more than one year. Clinical and physical examinations were conducted before enrolment. We measured anthropometric variables to calculate the body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), visceral adiposity index (VAI), and other surrogate indicators. We measured glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP), total cholesterol, HDL-c, and triglycerides in the serum.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Increasing metformin doses did not improve the studied parameters. Adherence to treatment significantly influences fasting glycemia, HbA1c level, and the markers of adiposity. Meanwhile, increasing metformin doses is not associated with changes in insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease risk markers.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Beyond metformin dose up-titration, treatment adherence affects glycemic control, visceral adiposity, and CVD risk surrogates. Metformin dose up-titration was not linked to insulin resistance and body fat contents.</p> Zainab Abdulrahman, Mohammed Qasim Alatrakji, Ahmed Abood Al-Maliky, Khalid Ibrahim Hussein, Saad Abdulrahman Hussain Copyright (c) 2022 Zainab Abdulrahman, Mohammed Qasim Alatrakji, Ahmed Abood Al-Maliky, Khalid Ibrahim Hussein, Saad Abdulrahman Hussain http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://iqjmc.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/19JFacMedBaghdad36/article/view/1939 Fri, 13 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of liraglutide on weight control and blood pressure in type 2 diabetes mellitus Iraqi patients https://iqjmc.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/19JFacMedBaghdad36/article/view/1971 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine illness, affecting an increasing number of people all over the world. It is caused by a lack, or inadequate synthesis of insulin by the pancreas leading to an increase in blood glucose concentrations. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most strongly linked disease to obesity of all disorders. The number of obesity-related diabetes is predicted to reach 300 million by 2025. The term 'diabesity' was coined as a result of this strong link, therefore, weight loss is seen as a key therapeutic goal in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Liraglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist that stimulates insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. Also, it has weight-losing benefits which is assumed to be due to appetite suppression and delayed gastric emptying. </p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To evaluate the effectiveness of Liraglutide on weight management, body mass index, renal function and blood pressure in type 2 diabetic mellitus obese patients in Iraq.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>An open-label therapeutic trial was conducted from November 2021 to June 2022 at Baquba Teaching Hospital/ Diyala. (23 males and 27 females) with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus for 2 - 4 years were included in the study. They were obese, hypertensive and dyslipidemic. They received metformin and liraglutide for 12 weeks as 0.6 mg/day during the first week, which was gradually increased to 1.2 mg and up to 1.8 mg/day according to patient tolerance and requirement for control at the beginning the study. The patients had their height as well as body weight measured, calculated, blood pressure measured and renal functions tested. The statistical analysis was performed using SAS (Statistical Analysis System - version 9.1). Two-way ANOVA and Least significant differences (LSD) post hoc test were performed as well as paired <em>t</em>-test. P&lt; 0.05 was considered statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Treatment with liraglutide for 12 weeks has resulted in a significant decrease in body weight, BMI, and blood pressure (P&lt;0.05). The changes in the results of renal function test of liraglutide-treated patients were not significant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>In obese type 2 diabetic patients, liraglutide has the potential of reducing body weight, body mass index and blood pressure. It seemed safe in terms of its systemic effects</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Ahmed J. Abdulrahman, Mohammed Abdul- Hassan Jabarah, Samer A. Najjar Copyright (c) 2022 Mohammed Abdul- Hassan Jabarah http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://iqjmc.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/19JFacMedBaghdad36/article/view/1971 Fri, 13 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Hematologic abnormalities and pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women with COVID-19 https://iqjmc.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/19JFacMedBaghdad36/article/view/1976 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Since declaring coronavirus disease 19 as a pandemic by the World Health Organization, a great concern was directed toward pregnant women and their fetuses. Despite the substantial impact of COVID-19 disease on pregnancy, there is a scarcity of national researches discussing this important issue. </p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To study the relationship between peripheral blood abnormalities and COVID-19 in pregnant women.</p> <p><strong>Patients and methods: </strong>A case control study was conducted in the labour wards of Baghdad Teaching Hospital in the Medical complex / Baghdad /Iraq during the period from 1<sup>st</sup> of February till 31<sup>st</sup> of July, 2021. Fifty pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19 disease were compared to 50 healthy pregnant women as controls. The pregnant women enrolled in the study were tested by COVID-19-Reverse transcription RT-PCR test upon admission to hospital. The confirmation of COVID-19 diagnosis was done according to the Iraqi guidelines approved by the Iraqi Ministry of Health.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Dyspnea was a significant clinical presentation of pregnant women with COVID-19 disease. Those women had abnormal white blood cell count, lymphocytopenia, high neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, high platelets to lymphocyte ratio and mild to moderate anemia which were significant when compared to controls. The maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality rates were higher among pregnant women with COVID-19 disease. Abnormalities in peripheral blood system parameters like lymphocyte count, neutrophils count, platelets count and hemoglobin level were predictors of maternal morbidity and mortality.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The clinical presentations and hematological abnormalities are useful in the diagnosis of COVID-19 disease in pregnant women and may be used as predictors of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality.</p> Huda Mozer AbdAlraheem, Rawaa D. M. AlJanabi Copyright (c) 2022 Huda Mozer AbdAlraheem, Rawaa D. M. AlJanabi http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://iqjmc.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/19JFacMedBaghdad36/article/view/1976 Fri, 13 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Pudendal nerve versus Lower Limb nerves electrophysiological abnormalities in diabetics with erectile dysfunction in Baghdad https://iqjmc.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/19JFacMedBaghdad36/article/view/1992 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the persistent inability to perform and maintain penile erection strong enough for fulfilling sexual interaction. It is caused by autonomic neuropathy, vasculogenic causes, endocrine deficit, drug-induced, psychosocial problems, or a combination of these causes.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study aims to compare pudendal neuropathy against limb neuropathy in diabetics complaining of erectile dysfunction through electrophysiological studies.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Eighty-four diabetic males were enrolled in this analytic cross-sectional study presented with erectile dysfunction. All participants were assessed by electrophysiological studies using Bulbocavernosus Induced Reflex to assess the competence of the pudendal nerve. Other nerve studies were used to assess lower limb nerve competence. The study was conducted in Ghazi Al-Hariri Surgical teaching hospital in Baghdad for the period from October 2021 to June 2022.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Nerve assessments revealed earlier involvement of the peripheral lower limb nerves in comparison with pudendal nerve.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Electrophysiological assessment is a practical test which can be used in identifying neurologic deficit among diabetic patients with erectile dysfunction.</p> <p> </p> Mohammed J. Al-Hadeethi, Najeeb H. Mohammed Copyright (c) 2022 Mohammed Al-Hadeethi http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://iqjmc.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/19JFacMedBaghdad36/article/view/1992 Fri, 13 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Detection of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease among Smokers Aged ≥40 years Attending Primary Health Care Centers in Baghdad-AL-Karkh and AL-Resafa https://iqjmc.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/19JFacMedBaghdad36/article/view/1936 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease causes permanent morbidity, premature mortality and great burden to the healthcare system. Smoking is it's most common risk factor and Spirometry is for diagnosing COPD and monitoring its progression.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> Early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in symptomatic smokers’ ≥ 40years by spirometry.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A cross sectional study on all symptomatic smokers aged ≥ 40 years attending ten PHCCs in Baghdad Alkarkh and Alrisafa. Those whose FEV1/FVC was &lt;70% on spirometry; after giving bronchodilator, were considered COPD +ve.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Overall, airway obstruction was seen in 206(46.8%). It is significantly associated with increase age (50-y), more in male and increase with increase duration and amount of smoking</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>COPD was prevalent among men and women. Early diagnosis of COPD is good for both patient and community. Routine spirometry is an easy way for screening and identifying asymptomatic patients. Before adoption of spirometry Cost-effectiveness is needed.</p> Isra A. Abd Ala, Nada Abdul Wahhab Mousa, Faris Al-Lami Copyright (c) 2022 Nada Abdul Wahhab Mousa, Isra A. Abd Ala, Faris Al-Lami http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://iqjmc.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/19JFacMedBaghdad36/article/view/1936 Fri, 13 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Lenalidomide Ointment on TNF-α Tissue Levels in Mice with Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis The Effect of Lenalidomide Ointment on TNF-α Tissue Levels in Mice with Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis https://iqjmc.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/19JFacMedBaghdad36/article/view/1959 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug having notable anti-inflammatory, and anti-antineoplastic properties. Lenalidomide suppresses the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have been linked to a variety of hematologic malignancies. Lenalidomide enhances the immune system of the host by regulating T cell proliferation, which results in changes in inflammation that are related to the etiology of psoriasis.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy of lenalidomide as an ointment in treating mouse models of psoriasis as well as how it may affect TNF-α levels in skin tissue in different experimental groups.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study was carried out between November 2021 and June 2022. 70 healthy male albino mice were randomly divided into 7 groups of 10 animals each. In groups (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6), imiquimod produced psoriasis. Only imiquimod cream was administered to Group 1, after psoriasis induced, Clobetasol ointment was applied to Group 2, placebo ointment was applied to Group 3, and lenalidomide ointment (1%, 2%, and 3%) were applied to Groups (4, 5, and 6), respectively. Healthy mice were utilized as a comparative control in Group 7. SPSS was utilized for the statistical analysis of the data (version 26).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Following lenalidomide treatment, the psoriatic region improved. Lenalidomide's effectiveness to treat imiquimod-induced mouse psoriasis was explained by the difference in tissue levels of TNF-α between the examined groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Findings suggest that different concentrations of lenalidomide ointment can improve mouse models of imiquimod-induced psoriasis. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry assays show that lenalidomide ointment was more effective and had no side effects that were associated with the use of the standard drugs.</p> sajjad Mustafa Thamer, Mohammed Q. Yahya Copyright (c) 2022 sajjad Mustafa Thamer http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://iqjmc.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/19JFacMedBaghdad36/article/view/1959 Fri, 13 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Immunogenicity of the biosimilar CT-P13 infliximab or the original infliximab in Iraqi patients with Ankylosing spondylitis does not correlate with their demographic characteristics https://iqjmc.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/19JFacMedBaghdad36/article/view/1969 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Ankylosing spondylitis is a rare disease affecting people with hereditary factors. Its treatment includes life style modification and use of drugs such as the biologic agent infliximab or its biosimilar, CT-P13 infliximab. Despite their therapeutic usefulness, these agents are associated with a number of serious adverse effects such as immunogenicity.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The aim of current study was to investigate if immunogenicity of the biosimilar CT-P13 infliximab or the original infliximab, in Iraqi patients with Ankylosing spondylitis, is affected by any of the patients’ demographic characteristics.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A retrospective open-label study was conducted from December 2021 to March 2022 at the Rheumatology Unit, Baghdad Teaching Hospital/Medical City, Baghdad. Forty-four patients were taking Infliximab, and another 50 patients were taking CT-P13, both at a dose of 5mg/kg for 3 months prior to recruitment in current study. Disease activity was assessed by ASDAS-CRP score while antibodies and C-reactive protein were tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay technique. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS statistical package for Social Sciences version 20.0. The level of significance was considered at P&lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: There was non-significant correlation between anti-infliximab antibodies and demographic data of patients (P&gt;0.05). Similar data were reported regarding the biosimilar CT-P13 infliximab except for smoking and disease activity which exhibited significant correlation with development of anti-CT-P13 antibodies (P&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Immunogenicity of the biosimilar CT-P13 infliximab, but not that of the original Infliximab, may be influenced by demographic characteristics or disease activity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. </p> Mohammed M. Kamil, Mohammed Abdul- Hassan Jabarah, Nizar A.l. Jasim Copyright (c) 2022 Mohammed Abdul- Hassan Jabarah http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://iqjmc.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/19JFacMedBaghdad36/article/view/1969 Fri, 13 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Association between Aggregatibacter actinomy-cetemcomitans bacterial load and NLRP3 inflam-masome activation in periodontitis patients with Diabetes https://iqjmc.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/19JFacMedBaghdad36/article/view/1972 <p><strong>Abstract: </strong>Background: <em>Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans</em> is one of the most common periodontal pathogen that has a direct effect on periodontium. Diabetes and periodontitis considered as chronic diseases with a bidirectional relationship between them. Evidence has shown that the Node Like Receptor Pyrine-3 inflammasome, is crucial for both illnesses.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> This investigation was conducted to observe the association between bacterial load of <em>A.</em> <em>actinomyctecomtans</em> and serum level of NLRP3 inflammasome in periodontitis patient with and without type 2 DM and control group.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: This case-control study included 85 participants, whose ages ranged from (23-55) years. Split into three groups; the control group, which had a clinically and systemically healthy periodontium, and the two groups with periodontitis, one of which also had type 2 DM. Samples of the four most profound periodontal pockets were sampled for subgingival plaque, and from the gingival sulcus in the control group. The real-time (PCR) was utilized in this experiment. to quantify <em>A. actinomyctecomtans</em> DNA was isolated from samples of dental plaque. All subjects' serum was collected, and the concentration of NLRP3 was measured using an ELISA technique.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results showed that the bacterial count was higher in two groups of patient than the control group, but there were no-significant differences. On the other hand, there was a significant correlation between the bacterial count and periodontal parameters in periodontitis with type 2 DM group, while in periodontitis group there was positive correlation with clinical attachment loss and bleeding on probing. A significant positive correlation also noticed between NLRP3 inflammasome and periodontal parameters in periodontitis patient with type2 DM. Regarding the group of periodontitis patients without systemic disease there was no significance correlation between inflammasome and clinical parameters. Finally, there is a non-significant correlation of <em>A.</em> <em>actinomyctecomtans</em> with inflammasome.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: <em>A.</em> <em>actinomyctecomtans</em> detection rate was strongly higher in patient groups compared to healthy subjects but statically non-significant. Moreover, the lack of correlation between <em>A. actinomyctecomtans</em> and the NLRP3 inflammasome indicates that NLRP3 activation is associated with inflammatory processes that are induced by a number of external factors, other than bacteria.</p> mohammed al-obaidi, Batool H. Al-Ghurabi Copyright (c) 2022 mohammed al-obaidi http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://iqjmc.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/19JFacMedBaghdad36/article/view/1972 Fri, 13 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of serum Podocalyxin in Iraqi women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome https://iqjmc.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/19JFacMedBaghdad36/article/view/1983 <p><strong style="font-size: 0.875rem;">Background: </strong><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">Polycystic ovarian syndrome is the most common endocrine disease in females of childbearing time of life. Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome have a higher chance of developing complications such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity. Obesity is a state of extreme fat buildup which leads to the development of multiple complications involving non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular disease and type2 diabetes mellitus. Podocalyxin is an element of the endothelial cells plasma membranes that is widely spread, it is limited to the luminal membrane area and is irregularly located on the surface of endothelial cells lining blood vessels.</span></p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To estimate serum Podocalyxin in polycystic ovarian syndrome women and compare its level with healthy controls. Also, to find the correlation between serum Podocalyxin and anthropometrics parameters which are (body mass index, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio).</p> <p> <strong>Methods</strong>: This case control study included 124 women who were grouped into 2 groups: group 1 included 63 females diagnosed with PCOS (patients) and group 2 included 61 healthy women (controls). Serum podocalyxin was measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique and anthropometrics measures (“body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist to hip ratio WHR”) were done.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results of this study showed significantly high mean BMI(P=0.001), WC(P=0.002) and WHR(P=0.001) in patients as compared to healthy controls. The results also showed a significant increase in mean value of serum PODXL (P=0.001) in PCOS females when compared with healthy controls. In patients group, significant positive correlations were found between serum PODXL and BMI (r=0.395, p=0.001), waist circumference (WC) (r.=0.433, p.=0.001) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) (r.=0.427, p.=0.001 ).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>PCOS women have greater body mass represented by BMI, WC and WHR which reflect the risk of multiple complications like hypertension, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. Moreover, PCOS women have higher serum PODXL which is considered as a marker for the vasculature thus might be a potential marker for prediction of early atherosclerosis.</p> Noor Mohammed Fadhil, Rana ali hamdi Copyright (c) 2022 Noor Mohammed Fadhil, Rana ali hamdi http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://iqjmc.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/19JFacMedBaghdad36/article/view/1983 Fri, 13 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A short-term comparison between the effect of two different concentrations of methotrexate on ovarian tissues and function of female albino rats https://iqjmc.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/19JFacMedBaghdad36/article/view/1967 <p><strong>Background: </strong>methotrexate is an antifolate that is widely used in cancers and inflammatory or auto- immune diseases, it is also known to be contraindicated in pregnancy, breast feeding and not recommended in patients planning to be parents since it has a harmful effect on fetus and gonads.Ovarian function can be evaluated by certain parameters like the levels of female hormones or anti- Mullerian hormone which is considered as a good indicator for this purpose or histopathological examination of ovarian follicles especially the primordial follicles.</p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Objective: </strong>the aim of this study is to determine the effect of two different concentrations of methotrexate on ovarian tissue integrity and function.</p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Materials and method: </strong>adult female albino rats (n=30) were randomly divided in to 3 groups; group A (n=10) in which animals were treated with i. p injection of normal saline once weekly for four weeks, group B (n=10) in which animals were treated with i. p. injection of 1mg/ kg bw of methotrexate once weekly for four weeks, and lastly group C in which animals were treated with i. p. injection of 2.5 mg/ kg bw of methotrexate once weekly for four weeks. Then serum level of anti- Mullerian hormone were measured and histopathological examination of the ovaries were done to evaluate ovarian injury caused by methotrexate treatment.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>this study has demonstrated that methotrexate in the both 1mg and 2.5 mg / kg of BW doses did not significantly reduce the levels of anti- Mullerian hormone and the number of primordial follicles and atretic follicles were also not significantly affected by the treatment of methotrexate in both doses. While histopathological examination revealed mild ovarian damage in case of treatment with 1mg/ kg bw of methotrexate and moderate damage in case of treatment with 2.5 mg/ kg bw of methotrexate.</p> <p><strong> Conclusions</strong>: there is no important difference between the effects of 1 and 2.5 mg/ kg of BW of methotrexate on ovarian function but there is a slight difference in the effects of the two different doses on the integrity of ovarian tissue.</p> Alak Hussein, Samara M. Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Alak Hussein http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://iqjmc.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/19JFacMedBaghdad36/article/view/1967 Fri, 13 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of sociodemographic characteristics and drug-related side effects on quality of life of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma receiving sorafenib treatment in Iraqi hospitals https://iqjmc.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/19JFacMedBaghdad36/article/view/2009 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor which has been given approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma and advanced renal cell carcinoma . However, measuring quality of life and patient-reported symptoms may provide further information for evaluating and comparing treatment efficacy and toxicity profiles during cancer treatment. Despite the critical importance of patients' quality of life while receiving anticancer treatment, neither Iraqi patients undergoing anti-cancer medications in general nor those receiving Sorafenib in particular had any published data evaluating this important parameter.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The study aimed to assess the quality of life of Sorafenib-treated Iraqi patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A prospective, cross-sectional study was performed at the oncology clinic of (Oncology Teaching Hospital, Al-Amal Hospital and Al -Imamein Al- Kadhimein Medical City in Baghdad, Iraq) during the period from November 2021 to July 2022. Patients were enrolled in current study by using a convenient sampling method. Assessment of quality of life was performed using a questionnaire from the “European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer”. Statistical analyses were performed using statistical package for Social Sciences. Student’s <em>t</em>-test and ANOVA test were used to compare categorical data. P value of &lt;0.05 was considered statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The present study included 52 patients in total. Of the latter, 90.4% experienced fatigue, making it the most frequent adverse event, followed by anorexia, anemia, nausea, diarrhea and vomiting (71.2%, 67.3%, 65.4%, 59.6%, 26.9%, respectively). In spite of that, some participants had a good quality of life while others did not.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma on sorafenib treatment have variable quality of the life. The latter is significantly affected by patients’ sociodemographic characteristics and treatment-related adverse events.</p> Tuqa H. Qasim , Mazin J. Ibraheem, Mohammed Abdul- Hassan Jabarah Copyright (c) 2022 Mohammed Abdul- Hassan Jabarah http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://iqjmc.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/19JFacMedBaghdad36/article/view/2009 Fri, 13 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000