The Effect of Emotional Abuse on Periodontal Status and Salivary Resisti




Emotional abuse, Child abuse, Periodontal disease, Saliva, Resistin.


Background: Emotional abuse is a widespread form of child abuse. It is suggested that the adverse outcomes from all forms of abuse mostly result from the emotional impacts. Resistin, a polypeptide high in cysteine, can serve as a valuable biochemical indicator of periodontal tissue damage when detected in the saliva.

Objective: To assess the relationship of emotional abuse with periodontal status and salivary resistin levels.

Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional comparative study included 522 intermediate school students aged 13-15 years in Kirkuk/Iraq. Information on emotional abuse was obtained using Glaser criteria which is a self-administered, structured, questionnaire form. The levels of emotional abuse were categorized into mild (score between 24-26), moderate (score between 27-42), and severe (score between 43-72). Periodontal health was assessed by using the community periodontal index (CPI). Non-stimulated saliva was collected and salivary resistin levels were evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Results: The most common level of abuse was moderate. The largest percentages of participants with dental calculus were observed in moderate (48.2%) and severe (57.5%) abuse groups and the highest mean number of sextants with gingival bleeding was observed in participants who experienced a moderate level of abuse (0.34). While the level of resistin was higher in the mild abuse group (237.06), all of its relationships with the periodontal condition were non-significant.

Conclusion: Emotional abuse affects salivary resistin levels but has no obvious effect on periodontal status. Non-significant correlations were observed between salivary resistin levels and the levels of abuse with periodontal conditions.


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Author Biographies

  • Qabas F. Sami, Department of Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.

    1Master student. Department of Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University

    of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
  • Ban S. Diab, Professor. Department of Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Professor (Pedodontic and preventive dentistry)  


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Child abuse; Emotional abuse; Periodontal disease; Resistin; Saliva.




How to Cite

F. Sami Q, Diab BS. The Effect of Emotional Abuse on Periodontal Status and Salivary Resisti. J Fac Med Baghdad [Internet]. 2024 Jul. 1 [cited 2024 Jul. 13];66(2):222-9. Available from:

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