Detection of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease among Smokers Aged ≥40 years Attending Primary Health Care Centers in Baghdad-AL-Karkh and AL-Resafa

Authors

  • Isra A. Abd Ala FETP graduate, health monitoring dep., DOH, MOH
  • Nada Abdul Wahhab Mousa Senior Specialist Doctor
  • Faris Al-Lami Professor of Community Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Baghdad.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.32007/jfacmedbagdad.6441936

Abstract

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease causes permanent morbidity, premature mortality and great burden to the healthcare system. Smoking is it's most common risk factor and Spirometry is for diagnosing COPD and monitoring its progression.

Objectives: Early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in symptomatic smokers’ ≥ 40years by spirometry.

Methods: A cross sectional study on all symptomatic smokers aged ≥ 40 years attending ten PHCCs in Baghdad Alkarkh and Alrisafa. Those whose FEV1/FVC was <70% on spirometry; after giving bronchodilator, were considered COPD +ve.

Results:  Overall, airway obstruction was seen in 206(46.8%). It is significantly associated with increase age (50-y), more in male and increase with increase duration and amount of smoking

Conclusions: COPD was prevalent among men and women. Early diagnosis of COPD is good for both patient and community. Routine spirometry is an easy way for screening and identifying asymptomatic patients. Before adoption of spirometry Cost-effectiveness is needed.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

-Hattab Y, Alhassan S, Balaan M, et.al.,Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease., Crit Care Nurs Q. 2016; PMID: 26919673 2016

López-Campos JL, Tan W, Soriano JB., Global burden of COPD. Respirology. 2016 PMID: 26494423 Review

WHO, Key facts about Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-(COPD), 2022.

Vijayan VK., Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease., Indian J Med Res. 2013 Feb;137(2):251-69.PMID: 23563369 Free PMC article. Review.

Rennard SI, Vestbo J. COPD: the dangerous underestimate of 15%. Lancet 2006; 367:1216.

Silverman EK.Annu Rev Physiol., Genetics of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, 2020

Qaseem A, Wilt TJ, Weinberger SE, et al. Diagnosis and management of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a clinical practice guideline update from the American College of Physicians, American College of Chest Physicians, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society. Ann Intern Med 2011; 155:179.

Simel D, Rennie D. The rational clinical examination: Evidence-based clinical diagnosis, McGraw Hill. (Ed), New York 2008.

Walia GK, Vellakkal R, Gupta V, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and its Non-Smoking Risk Factors in India., COPD. 2016;13(2):251-61. doi: 10.3109/15412555.2015.,PMID: 26452126 Review.

Lamprecht B, McBurnie MA, Vollmer WM, et al. COPD in never smokers: results from the population-based burden of obstructive lung disease study. Chest 2011; 139:752.

Tu X, Donovan C, Kim RY, et al. Asthma-COPD overlap: current understanding and the utility of experimental models, European Respiratory, 2021

Janciauskiene S, DeLuca DS, Barrecheguren M, et,al. Serum Levels of Alpha1-antitrypsin and Their Relationship With COPD in the General Spanish Population, Volume 56, Issue 2, February 2020, Pages 76-83

Barnes PJ, Burney PG, Silverman EK, et.al. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2015 Dec 3;1:15076. doi: 10.1038/nrdp.2015.76., PMID: 27189863 Review

Kessler R, Partridge MR, Miravitlles M, et al. Symptom variability in patients with severe COPD: a pan-European cross-sectional study. Eur Respir J 2011; 37:264.

Lee J., Jung HM, Kim SK, et al. Factors associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation, based on big data analysis, 2019

Batura-Gabryel H, Grabicki M, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiovascular diseases--'cardiopulmonary continuum', 2014

Putcha N, Drummond MB, Wise RA, Hansel N N. Comorbidities and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Prevalence, Influence on Outcomes, and Management. 2015

Sarkar M, Bhardwaz R, Madabhavi I, Modi M. Physical signs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung India J.,2019

Garcia-Pachon E, Padilla-Navas I. Frequency of Hoover's sign in stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int J Clin Pract 2006; 60:514.

NCBI PubChem. icotine. http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=89594#x27 (Accessed on September 13, 2022

MacNee W. Is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease an Accelerated Aging Disease?, 2016, PMID: 28005421

Ntritsos G, Franek J, Belbasism L. Gender-specific estimates of COPD prevalence: a systematic review and meta-analysis, 2018

Li J, Zhu L, Wei Y, et al. Association between adiposity measures and COPD risk in Chinese adults, European Respiratory Journal 2020 55:

Chang JT, Raphael Mesa, Levy D T, Prediction of COPD risk accounting for time-varying smoking exposures, March 10, 2021

Wheaton AG, Liu Y, Janet B. Croft ,Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Smoking Status — United States, 2017, Weekly / June 21, 2019 / 68(24);533–538

Bauer W S, Schiffman R F., Factors Influencing Self-Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease by Community-Dwelling Adults.West J Nurs Res. 2020 Jun;42(6):423-430. doi: 10.1177/0193945919865532. Epub 2019 Jul 17.PMID: 31313648

Oh YM, Bhome AB, Boonsawat W, et al., Characteristics of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in the pulmonology clinics of seven Asian cities. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2013; 8:31.

Mannino DM, Gagnon RC, Petty TL, Lydick E. Obstructive lung disease and low lung function in adults in the United States: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160:1683.

Kuempel ED, Wheeler MW, Smith RJ, et al., Contributions of dust exposure and cigarette smoking to emphysema severity in coal miners in the United States. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2009; 180:257.

Mannino DM, Buist AS, Petty TL, et al. Lung function and mortality in the United States: data from the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey follow up study. Thorax 2003; 58:388.

Sin DD, Wu L, Man SF. The relationship between reduced lung function and cardiovascular mortality: a population-based study and a systematic review of the literature. Chest 2005; 127:1952.

Postma DS, Bush A, van den Berge M., Risk factors and early origins of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease., Lancet. 2015 Mar 7;385(9971):899-909. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60446-3. Epub 2014 Aug 11.PMID: 25123778 Review.

Raghavan D, Varkey A, Bartter T., Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the impact of gender., Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2017

Disler RT, Gallagher RD, Davidson PM., Factors influencing self-management in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an integrative review. Int J Nurs Stud. 2012 Feb;49(2):230-42. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2011.11.005. Epub 2011 Dec 6., PMID: 22154095 Review.

Hartley BF, Barnes NC, Lettis S, et al., Risk factors for exacerbations and pneumonia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a pooled analysis., Respir Res. 2020

Wadland WC, Zubek VB, Clerisme-Beaty et al, Patient Factors Influencing Respiratory-Related Clinician Actions in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Screening., Am J Prev Med. 2017.

Raghavan D, Varkey A, Bartter T., Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the impact of gender., Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2017.,PMID: 27977622 Review.

Suzuki M, Makita H, Yoichi M.,et.al, Clinical features and determinants of COPD exacerbation in the Hokkaido COPD cohort study Investigators, European Respiratory Journal 2014 43: 1289-1297; DOI: 10.1183/09031936.00110213

Downloads

Published

2023-01-13

How to Cite

1.
Abd Ala IA, Mousa NAW, Al-Lami F. Detection of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease among Smokers Aged ≥40 years Attending Primary Health Care Centers in Baghdad-AL-Karkh and AL-Resafa. JFacMedBagdad [Internet]. 2023 Jan. 13 [cited 2023 Jan. 30];64(4):245-51. Available from: https://iqjmc.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/19JFacMedBaghdad36/article/view/1936