Kidney functions and electrolyte disturbance among Iraqi patients with bladder cancer


  • Noor Ibraheem Ahmed Ibraheem department of biochemistry / Collage of medicine / university of Baghdad
  • Rawaa H. Ali Dept. of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Baghdad
  • Mohammed B. Ismail Urology department, surgical subspecialty hospital, Baghdad medical city complex



Background: Bladder cancer is among the most prevalent cancers worldwide, with 549,393 new cases reported in 2018. Approximately 3% of all new cancer diagnoses and 2.1% of all cancer deaths are due to urinary bladder cancer.

Objectives: This study aims to explore the efficiency of renal system functions as indicated by renal function tests and electrolyte levels among bladder cancer patients.

Methods: All patients in this case-control study were recruited from Ghazi Al-Hariri Hospital for surgical specialties in Baghdad during the period from December 2021 to June 2022. A total of 100 individuals were enrolled in this study and divided into two groups. The first group included 50 patients with an age range of (16-79) years. All patients were first diagnosed and investigated with a bladder mass by transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) and sent to the histopathological examination for biopsy of bladder lesion. The second group included 50 healthy individuals.

Results: The results of the present study showed that all renal function tests and serum electrolyte levels were in the upper limit or within the normal range, although some of these levels were significantly different between patients and controls.

Conclusion: All renal function tests were within the upper limits of the normal range as most of the bladder tumors were low-grade small-sized masses.


Download data is not yet available.


Richters A, Aben HKK, Kiemeney MLAL. (2020). The global burden of urinary bladder cancer: an update. World Journal of Urology. 38(8):1895-1904. [PubMed] [Google Scholar].

Lenis AT, Lec PM, Chamie K. (2020). Bladder Cancer: A Review. Journal of the American Medical Association. 17;324(19):1980-1991. [PubMed] [Google Scholar].

Sun Y, Li J, Qu Z, Yang Z, Jia X, Lin Y, et al,. (2021). Causal Associations between Serum Urea and Cancer: A Mendelian Randomization Study. Genes. 29;12(4):498. [PubMed] [Google Scholar].

Hackemer P, Małkiewicz B, Menzel F, Drabik A, Tupikowski K, Zdrojowy R. (2021). Determinants of survival in patients with bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy: The impact of serum creatinine level. Advances in clinical and experimental medicine. 30(1):77-82. [PubMed] [Google Scholar].

Rodrigues D, Jerónimo C, Henrique R, Belo L, Bastos LDM, de Pinho GP, et al. (2016). Biomarkers in bladder cancer: A metabolomic approach using in vitro and ex vivo model systems. International Journal of Cancer. 15;139(2):256-68. [PubMed] [Google Scholar].

Berardi R, Torniai M, Lenci E, Pecci F, Morgese F, Rinaldi S. (2019). Electrolyte disorders in cancer patients: a systematic review. Journal of Cancer Metastasis and Treatment. 5:79. [Google Scholar].

Ando T, Katagiri A, Nakayama R, Sakai T, and Mizusawa T. (2018). Hypercalcemia associated with lymph node metastasis following radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. International journal of urology case reports. 3;1(1):25-28. [PubMed] [Google Scholar].

Xu J, Chen X, Wang X, Zhu C, Hu Y, Yang X, et al. (2019). Preoperative Hyponatremia And Hypocalcemia Predict Poor Prognosis In Elderly Gastric Cancer Patients. Cancer Management and Research. 27;11:8765-8780. [PubMed] [Google Scholar].

El-Mawla GN, El-Bolkainy NM, Khaled MH. (2001). Bladder cancer in Africa: update. Seminars in Oncology. 28(2), 174–178. [PubMed] [Google Scholar].

Shahin L, Patel MK, Heydari KM, Kesselman MM. (2021). Hyperuricemia and Cardiovascular Risk. Cureus. 5;13(5):e14855. [PubMed] [Google Scholar].

Miyake M, OwariT, Tomizawa M, Matsui M, Nishibayashi N, Iida K, et al. (2019). Long-term Changes in Renal Function, Blood Electrolyte Levels, and Nutritional Indices After Radical Cystectomy and Ileal Conduit in Patients with Bladder Cancer. Urological Oncology. 16(2):145-151. [PubMed] [Google Scholar].

Garces IAH, Ang JE, Ameratunga M, Chénard-Poirier M, Dolling D, Diamantis N, et al. (2018). A study of 1088 consecutive cases of electrolyte abnormalities in oncology phase I trials. European Journal of Cancer. 104, 32–38. [PubMed] [Google Scholar].




How to Cite

Ibraheem Ahmed Ibraheem N, H. Ali R, B. Ismail M. Kidney functions and electrolyte disturbance among Iraqi patients with bladder cancer. JFacMedBagdad [Internet]. 2023 Jan. 13 [cited 2023 Jan. 30];64(4):214-7. Available from: